Aquifer —underground bed from which groundwater is produced.
Arable —land able to be cultivated, i.e. farmable land.
Barter —to trade goods or services without money.
Bicameral —legislative branch with two houses of law makers.
Constitutional monarchy —the monarch, the ruler, is subject to the laws and constitution of the state.
Desertification —the process whereby an environmental region transforms into desert.
Emigrate —to move from one country to live in another. Emigrants are those who have left a country, while immigrants are those who have entered a country (Moroccan emigrants have settled in France with other North African immigrants).
Enlightenment —a philosophical movement in 18th century Europe that advocated the use of reason to investigate and transform accepted ideas and social institutions.
GDP per capita —GDP is the Gross Domestic Product of a country, a measure of the total market value of all the goods and services produced by the country, usually in a year’s time. GDP per capita is the total GDP divided by the population of the country. GDP per capita allows us to determine the average wealth of the people of the country, but it is not a good description of poverty because it ignores how the country’s wealth is distributed.
Globalization —the increasing connectivity and interdependence of the world, particularly economic markets.
Hydrated —to be watered, to get moisture.
Indigenous— occurring naturally in a location or region. Referring to people, indigenous usually means the earliest known inhabitants, for instance, Native Americans are considered the indigenous peoples of the North American continent.
Industrialize —to develop economic activities based on the commercial manufacture and production of goods.
Jihad —Though often translated as a Holy War, Jihad describes a struggle in the name of God and doesn’t even require external conflict. Jihad is often associated with fundamentalist movements to institute strict obedience to the rules of the Quran.
Marginal land —land that is barely able to sustain plant life
Nation-State —a political organization of people within geographic boundaries who identify as members of the same national community, with shared culture, history, and often language.
Quran (also spelled Koran)—the holy book of the Islamic Faith, the Quran is believed to be the exact words of God as they were revealed to the Prophet Mohammed, whom Muslims consider to be the last prophet.
Remittance —money sent by overseas workers to their home country.
Sedimentation— the silt and soils in rivers that slowly sink to the bottom. The deposits are called sediments.
Sown —to plant, refers to putting seeds into soil, from the verb to sow .
Subsistence —raising food to eat and to survive on, not for commercial sale.
Unicameral —a legislative branch that has one body of lawmakers.
Urbanization —the movement of people from rural to urban areas, in which cities expand in both size and population density.